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C

call
the point at which the computer begins following the instructions in a subprogram is referred to as the subprogram call
cancellation error
a form of representational error that occurs when numbers of widely differing magnitudes are added or subtracted
central processing unit (CPU)
the part of the computer that executes the instructions (program) stored in memory; consists of the arithmetic/logic unit and the control unit
chain
a linked list of elements that share the same hash location
char
a data type whose values consist of one alphanumeric character (letter, digit, or special symbol)
character set
a standard set of alphanumeric characters with a given collating sequence and binary representation
circular linked list
a list in which every node has a successor; the "last" element is succeeded by the "first" element
class
an unstructured type that encapsulates a fixed number of data components with the functions that manipulate them; the predefined operations on an instance of a class are "whole assignment" and "component access"
class constructor
a special member function of a class that is implicitly invoked when a class object is defined
class destructor
a special member function of a class that is implicitly invoked when a class object goes out of scope
class member
a component of a class; class members may be either data or functions
class object (class instance)
a variable of a class type
clear- (white-) box testing
testing a program or function based on covering all of the branches or paths of the code
client
software that declares and manipulates objects (instances) of a particular class
clustering
the tendency of elements to become unevenly distributed in the hash table, with many elements clustering around a single hash location
code coverage

See clear- (white-) box testing.

code walk-through
a verification process for a program in which each statement is examined to check that it faithfully implements the corresponding algorithmic step, and that the preconditions and postconditions of each module are preserved
coding
translating an algorithm into a programming language; the process of assigning bit patterns to pieces of information
collating sequence
the ordering of the elements of a set or series, such as the characters (values) in a character set
collision
the condition resulting when two or more keys produce the same hash location
communication complexity
a measure of the quantity of data passing through a module's interface
compiler
a program that translates a high-level language (such as C++, Pascal, or FORTRAN) into machine code
compiler listing
a copy of a program into which have been inserted messages from the compiler (indicating errors in the program that prevent its translation into machine language if appropriate)
complete binary tree
a binary tree that is either full or full through the next-to-last level, with the leaves on the last level as far to the left as possible
complete graph
a graph in which every vertex is directly connected to every other vertex
complexity
a measure of the effort expended by the computer in performing a computation, relative to the size of the computation
composite type
a data type that allows a collection of values to be associated with an object of that type
composition (containment)
a mechanism by which an internal data member of one class is defined to be an object of another class type
computer
a programmable device that can store, retrieve, and process data
computer program
a list of instructions to be performed by a computer
computer programming
the process of planning a sequence of steps for a computer to follow
concrete step
a step for which the implementation details are fully specified
conditional test
the point at which the Boolean expression is evaluated and the decision is made to either begin a new iteration or skip to the first statement following the loop
constant
an item in a program whose value is fixed at compile time and cannot be changed during execution
constant time
an algorithm whose Big-0 work expression is a constant
constructor
an operation that builds new instances of an abstract data type (such as a list)
control abstraction
the separation of the logical properties of a control structure from its implementation
control structure
a statement used to alter the normally sequential flow of control
control unit
the component of the central processing unit that controls the action of other components so that instructions (the program) are executed in sequence
conversion function
a function that converts a value of one type to another type so that it can be assigned to a variable of the second type; also called transfer function or type cast
copy constructor
a special member function of a class that is implicitly invoked when passing parameters by value, initializing a variable in a declaration, and returning an object as the value of a function
count-controlled loop
a loop that executes a predetermined number of times
counter
a variable whose value is incremented to keep track of the number of times a process or event occurs
CPU

See central processing unit (CPU).

crash
the cessation of a computer's operations as a result of the failure of one of its components; cessation of program execution due to an error
CRC card
(Class, Responsibility, Collaboration) a visualization technique that uses 4 × 6 cards to represent a class
cursor control keys
a special set of keys on a computer keyboard that allow the user to move the cursor up, down, right, and left to any point on the screen data information that has been put into a form a computer can use


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