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E-F

echo printing
printing the data values input to a program to verify that they are correct
edge (arc)
a pair of vertices representing a connection between two nodes in a graph
editor
an interactive program used to create and modify source programs or data
encapsulation (in OOD)
the bundling of data and actions in such a way that the logical properties of the data and actions are separated from the implementation details; the practice of hiding a module implementation in a separate block with a formally specified interface
enumeration data type
a data type in which the formal description of the set of values is an ordered list of literal values
enumerator
one of the values in the domain of an enumeration type
event counter
a variable that is incremented each time a particular event occurs
event-controlled loop
a loop that terminates when something happens inside the loop body to signal that the loop should be exited
exception
a situation associated with an unusual, usually unpredictable event, detectable by software or hardware, which requires special processing
exception report
a set of messages in a program that explains the actions taken when an invalid data item is encountered during execution
executing
the action of a computer performing as instructed by a given program
execution summary
a computer-generated list of all commands processed and any system messages generated during batch processing
execution trace
a testing procedure that involves simulating by hand the computer executing a program
expression
an arrangement of identifiers, literals, and operators that can be evaluated to compute a value of a given type
expression statement
a statement formed by appending a semicolon to an expression
external file
a file that is used to communicate with people or programs and is stored externally to the program
external pointer
a named pointer variable that references the first node in a linked structure
external representation
the printable (character) form of a data value
fetch-execute cycle
the sequence of steps performed by the central processing unit for each machine language instruction
field
a group of character positions in a line of output
field identifier (member identifier in C++)
the name of a component in a record (struct)
field member selector
the expression used to access components of a record variable; formed by using the record variable name and the field identifier, separated by a period
field of a record
a component of a record data type
file
a named area in secondary storage that is used to hold a collection of data; the collection of data itself
filtering
the stage in an object-oriented design in which the classes determined during brainstorming are reexamined
finite state machine
an idealized model of a simple computer consisting of a set of states, the rules that specify when states are changed, and a set of actions that are performed when changing states
flag
a Boolean variable that is set in one part of the program and tested in another to control the logical flow of a program
flat implementation
the hierarchical structure of a solution written as one long sequence of steps; also called inline implementation
floating point number
the value stored in a type float variable, so called because part of the memory location holds the exponent and the balance of the location the mantissa, with the decimal point floating as necessary among the significant digits
flow of control
the order of execution of the statements in a program
folding
a hash method that breaks the key into several pieces and concatenates or exclusive-ORs some of them to form the hash value
formal parameter
a variable declared in a function heading
formal parameter declaration
the code that associates a formal parameter identifier with a data type and a passing mechanism
formatting
the planned positioning of statements or declarations and blanks on a line of a program; the arranging of program output so that it is neatly spaced and aligned
free store (heap)
a pool of memory locations reserved for dynamic allocation of data
full binary tree
a binary tree in which all of the leaves are on the same level and every nonleaf node has two children
function
a subprogram in C++
function call
an expression or statement in the main program requiring the computer to execute a function subprogram
function definition
a function declaration that includes the body of the function
function prototype
a function declaration without the body of the function
function result
the value computed by the function and then returned to the main program; often just called the result
function result type
the data type of the result value returned by a function; often referred to simply as function type
function type

See function result type.

functional cohesion
a property of a module in which all concrete steps are directed toward solving just one problem, and any significant subproblems are written as abstract steps
functional domain
the set of valid input data for a program or function
functional equivalence
a property of a module that performs exactly the same operation as the abstract step it defines, or when one module performs exactly the same operation as another module
functional modules
in top-down design, the structured tasks and subtasks that are solved individually to create an effective program
functional problem description
a description that clearly states what a program is to do


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