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G-I

garbage
memory locations that can no longer be accessed
general (recursive) case
the case for which the solution is expressed in terms of a smaller version of itself
generic data type
a type for which the operations are defined but the types of the items being manipulated are not
global
a descriptive term applied to an identifier declared outside any function, so-called because it is accessible to everything that follows it
graph
a data structure that consists of a set of nodes and a set of edges that relate the nodes to each other
hardware
the physical components of a computer
hash function
a function used to manipulate the key of an element in a list to identify its location in the list
hashing
the technique used for ordering and accessing elements in a list in a relatively constant amount of time by manipulating the key to identify its location in the list
header node
a placeholder node at the beginning of a list; used to simplify list processing
heap
a complete binary tree, each of whose elements contains a value that is greater than or equal to the value of each of its children;

See also free store (heap).

heuristics
assorted problem-solving strategies
hierarchical implementation
a process in which a modular solution is implemented by subprograms that duplicate the hierarchical structure of the solution
hierarchical records
records in which at least one of the fields is itself a record
hierarchy (in OOD)
structuring of abstractions in which a descendant object inherits the characteristics of its ancestors
high-level programming language
any programming language in which a single statement translates into one or more machine language instructions
homogeneous
a descriptive term applied to structures in which all components are of the same data type (such as an array)
identifier
a name associated with a process or object and used to refer to that process or object
implementation phase
the second set of steps in programming a computer: translating (coding) the algorithm into a programming language; testing the resulting program by running it on a computer, checking for accuracy, and making any necessary corrections; using the program
implementing
coding and testing an algorithm
implementing a test plan
running the program with the test cases listed in the test plan
implicit matching

See positional matching.

in place
describes a kind of sorting algorithm in which the components in an array are sorted without the use of a second array
index
a value that selects a component of an array
infinite loop
a loop whose termination condition is never reached and which therefore is never exited without intervention from outside of the program
infinite recursion
the situation in which a subprogram calls itself over and over continuously
information
any knowledge that can be communicated
information hiding
The practice of hiding the details of a function or data structure with the goal of controlling access to the details of a module or structure; the programming technique of hiding the details of data or actions from other parts of the program
inheritance
a design technique used with a hierarchy of classes by which each descendant class inherits the properties (data and operations) of its ancestor class; the language mechanism by which one class acquires the properties-data and operations-of another class; a mechanism for automatically sharing data and methods among members of a class and its subclasses
inline implementation

See flat implementation.

inorder traversal
a systematic way of visiting all the nodes in a binary tree that visits the nodes in the left subtree of a node, then visits the node, and then visits the nodes in the right subtree of the node
input
the process of placing values from an outside data set into variables in a program; the data may come from either an input device (keyboard) or an auxiliary storage device (disk or tape)
input prompts
messages printed by an interactive program, explaining what data is to be entered
input transformation
an operation that takes input values and converts them to the abstract data type representation
input/output (I/O)devices
the parts of a computer that accept data to be processed (input) and present the results of that processing (output)
insertion sort
a sorting algorithm in which values are placed one at a time into their proper position within a list that was originally empty
inspection
a verification method in which one member of a team reads the program or design line by line and the others point out errors
integer number
a positive or negative whole number made up of a sign and digits (when the sign is omitted, a positive sign is assumed)
integration testing
testing performed to integrate program modules that have already been independently unit tested
interactive system
a system that allows direct communication between the user and the computer
interface
a connecting link (such as a computer terminal) at a shared boundary that allows independent systems (such as the user and the computer) to meet and act on or communicate with each other; the formal definition of the behavior of a subprogram and the mechanism for communicating with it
internal file
a file that is created but not saved; also called a scratch file
interpreter
a program that inputs a program in a high-level language and directs the computer to perform the actions specified in each statement; unlike a compiler, an interpreter does not produce a machine language version of the entire program
invoke
to call on a subprogram, causing the subprogram to execute before control is returned to the statement following the call
iteration
an individual pass through, or repetition of, the body of a loop
iteration counter
a counter variable that is incremented with each iteration of a loop
iterator
an operation that allows us to process all the components in an abstract data type sequentially


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