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O-P

object class (class)
the description of a group of objects with similar properties and behaviors; a pattern for creating individual objects
object program
the machine-language version of a source program
object-based programming language
a programming language that supports abstraction and encapsulation, but not inheritance
object-oriented design
a building-block design technique that incorporates abstraction, encapsulation, modularity, and hierarchy
object-oriented programming
a method of implementation in which programs are organized as cooperative collections of objects, each of which represents an instance of some class, and whose classes are all members of a hierarchy of classes united via inheritance relationships
observer
an operation that allows us to observe the state of an instance of an abstract data type without changing it
one-dimensional array
a structured collection of components of the same type given a single name; each component is accessed by an index that indicates its position within the collection
operating system
a set of programs that manages all of the computer's resources
out-of-bounds array index
an index value that, in C++, is either less than zero or greater than the array size minus one
output transformation
an operation that takes an instance of an abstract data type and converts it to a representation that can be output
overflow
the condition that arises when the value of a calculation is too large to be represented
overloading
giving the same name to more than one function or using the same operator symbol for more than one operation; usually associated with static binding
overriding
reimplementing a member function inherited from a parent class
parameter
a literal, constant, variable, or expression used for communicating values to or from a subprogram
parameter list
a mechanism by which functions communicate with each other
pass by address
a parameter-passing mechanism in which the memory address of the actual parameter is passed to the formal parameter; also called pass by reference
pass by name
a parameter-passing mechanism in which the actual parameter is passed to a procedure as a literal character string and interpreted by a thunk
pass by reference

See pass by address.

pass by value
a parameter-passing mechanism in which a copy of an actual parameter's value is passed to the formal parameter
password
a unique series of letters assigned to a user (and known only by that user) by which that user identifies himself or herself to a computer during the logging-on procedure; a password system protects information stored in a computer from being tampered with or destroyed
path
a combination of branches that might be traversed when a program or function is executed; a sequence of vertices that connects two nodes in a graph
path testing
a testing technique whereby the tester tries to execute all possible paths in a program or function
PC

See personal computer (PC).

peripheral device
an input, output, or auxiliary storage device attached to a computer
personal computer (PC)
a small computer system (usually intended to fit on a desktop) that is designed to be used primarily by a single person
pointer
a simple data type consisting of an unbounded set of values, each of which addresses or otherwise indicates the location of a variable of a given type; operations defined on pointer variables are assignment and test for equality
polymorphic operation
an operation that has multiple meanings depending on the type of the object to which it is bound at run time
polymorphism
The ability to determine which of several operations with the same name is appropriate; a combination of static and dynamic binding
positional matching
a method of matching actual and formal parameters by their relative positions in the two parameter lists; also called relative or implicit matching
postconditions
assertions that must be true after a module is executed
postfix operator
an operator that follows its operand(s)
postorder traversal
a systematic way of visiting all the nodes in a binary tree that visits the nodes in the left subtree of a node, then visits the nodes in the right subtree of the node, and then visits the node
precision
a maximum number of significant digits
preconditions
assertions that must be true before a module begins execution
prefix operator
an operator that precedes its operand(s)
preorder traversal
a systematic way of visiting all the nodes in a binary tree that visits a node, then visits all the nodes in the left subtree of the node, and then visits the nodes in the right subtree of the node
priming read
an initial reading of a set of data values before entry into an event-controlled loop, in order to establish values for the variables
problem-solving phase
the first set of steps in programming a computer: analyzing the problem; developing an algorithm; testing the algorithm for accuracy
procedural abstraction
the separation of the logical properties of an action from its implementation
program validation
the process of determining the degree to which software fulfills its intended purpose
program verification
the process of determining the degree to which a software product fulfills its specifications
programming
planning, scheduling, or performing a task or an event;

See also computer programming.

programming language
a set of rules, symbols, and special words used to construct a program
pseudocode
a mixture of English statements and C++-like control structures that can easily by translated into a programming language


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