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S

scenarios
the stage in an object-oriented design in which the behavoir of each class is determined
scope
the region of program code where it is legal to reference (use) an identifier
scope rules
the rules that determine where in a program a given identifier may be accessed, given the point at which the identifier is declared
scratch file

See internal file.

secondary storage device

See auxiliary storage device.

selection control structure
a form of program structure allowing the computer to select one among possible actions to perform based on given circumstances; also called a branching control structure
self
the instance object (class) used in the invocation of a method
self-documenting code
a program containing meaningful identifiers as well as judiciously used clarifying comments
semantics
the set of rules that gives the meaning of instruction written in a programming language
semihierarchical implementation
a modular solution implemented by functions in a manner that preserves the hierarchical design, except that a function used by multiple modules is implemented once, outside of the hierarchy, and called in each place it is needed
sentinel
a special data value used in certain event-controlled loops as a signal that the loop should be exited
sequence
a structure in which statements are executed one after another
shallow copy
an operation that copies one class object to another without copying any pointed-to data
side effect
any effect of one function on another that is not part of the explicitly defined interface between them
significant digits
those digits from the first nonzero digit on the left to the last nonzero digit on the right (plus any zero digits that are exact)
simulation
a problem solution that has been arrived at through the application of an algorithm designed to model the behavior of physical systems, materials, or processes
size (of an array)
the physical space reserved for an array
software
computer programs; the set of all programs available on a computer
software engineering
the application of traditional engineering methodologies and techniques to the development of software
software life cycle
the phases in the life of a large software project including requirements analysis, specification, design, implementation, testing, and maintenance
software piracy
the unauthorized copying of software for either personal use or use by others
sorting
arranging the components of a list in order (for instance, words in alphabetical order, numbers in ascending or descending order)
source program
a program written in a high-level programming language
stable sort
a sorting algorithm that preserves the order of duplicates
stack
an abstract data type in which elements are added and removed from only one end; a "last in, first out" (LIFO) structure
stack frame

See activation record (stack frame).

stack overflow
the condition resulting from trying to push an element onto a full stack
stack underflow
the condition resulting from trying to pop an empty stack
standardized
made uniform; most high-level languages are standardized, as official descriptions of them exist
static binding
the compile-time determination of which function to call for a particular object
static variable
a variable for which memory remains allocated throughout the execution of the entire program
stepwise design

See top-down design.

stepwise refinement

See top-down design.

string
a collection of characters that is interpreted as a single data item; in C++, a null-terminated sequence of characters stored in a char array
stub
a dummy function that assists in testing part of a program; it has the same function that would actually be called by the part of the program being tested, but is usually much simpler
style
the individual manner in which computer programmers translate algorithms into a programming language
subprogram

See function.

supercomputer
the most powerful class of computers
switch expression
the expression in a switch statement whose value determines which case label is selected; it cannot be a floating point expression
syntax
the formal rules governing how valid instructions (constructs) are written in a programming language
system software
a set of programs—including the compiler, the operating system, and the editor—that improves the efficiency and convenience of the computer's processing


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