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Index

P

Paired symbols, 199
Palindromes, 230
Parameterized constructor, 223, 225
Parameters
one-dimensional arrays as, 79
passing, 74-75, 368
to templates, 211
two-dimensional arrays as, 83-84
Parentheses
in well-formed and ill-formed expressions, 199, 200
Pascal, 82
Passing by reference, 368
Passing parameters by reference, 372
Passing parameters by value, 352, 353, 372
Passing pointer by reference, 475
Passing pointer by value, 475
Passive data structure, 90
Path, 37, 549, 550
Path testing, 37
Peripheral devices, 3
Per queue node
in linked queue implementations, 305, 306
PersonType class, 93
Pointer constant, 221
Pointer dereferencing
and member selection, 287
Pointers
arrays sorted with, 619
and chains, 631, 633
changing, 285
and circular linked lists, 337, 338
and circularly linked queues, 303
and DeleteItem in circular list, 342
and double linked lists, 346
drawing pictures of, 219
and dynamically allocated arrays, 223
and Enqueue with Queue ADT, 296, 298, 299, 300
and inchworm effect, 320, 321, 335
and InsertItem function in Sorted List ADT, 320
and InsertItem in circular list, 340
and InsertItem operation, 418
and linear linked lists, 334
and objects pointed to, 221
passing by reference, 475
passing by value, 475
and Pop function with Stack ADT, 290, 291
and Push function with Stack ADT, 280, 281, 283, 286, 287
relative position at beginning of iteration, 354
shallow copies, deep copies and, 352, 353
sorting with, 618
in specialized list ADT, 377
and stacking, 434, 436
tracking, 282
and Unsorted List ADT, 307
and using arrays, 360-361, 362, 363
Pointer types, 214-222
application level, 221-222
implementation level, 222
logical level, 214-221
Pointer variables
comparing for equality and assigning to one another, 220
Polymorphism, 92, 95, 368-373, 392
Pop function, 204
and dynamic storage allocation, 289-291
Pop operation, 198, 207, 240
effects of, 197, 208
Positive values, 36
Postconditions, 29, 30, 31, 97
Postorder traversal, 485, 490, 493, 553
algorithm for, 491
generating, 492
PQType class, 542, 561
Preconditions, 29, 30, 31, 97, 143
Predicates, 71, 72
Preorder traversal, 490, 493
algorithm for, 491
generating, 492
Primary key, 618, 623
Primary unique key, 617
Primitive constructors, 71n.1
Printers, 3
Print function, 490
PrintInteger, 36
PrintList, 145
Print operation, 460, 505
Print queue, 244
PrintResult function, 371
PrintReversed function, 415
Priority queue, 117, 226, 530-533, 547, 614
ADT specification, 530-531
application level, 531
implementation level, 532-533
logical level, 530-531
real-life, 532
and single-source shortest-path problem, 560
Priority queue implementations
comparison of, 546
Private members
accessing, 86
of classes, 415
private reserved word, 90
Probabilities
and simulations, 256
Problem analysis, 2
Processing requirements
in detailed specification, 9
Processing time
and sorting algorithms, 588
Process Symbol, 201
ProcessValues, 83, 84
Program correctness, 234
Program design, 9-18, 59
approaches to, 14-18
tools for, 9-14
Programmers, 434, 616, 617, 643
Programmer time
and hash functions, 637
and sorting algorithms, 642
and sorting efficiency, 616-617
Programs
modifications in, 5-6
right, 5
testing for, 34-45, 58
validation of, 20
Program verification, 20
constructs for, 95-99
and preconditions/postconditions, 29-31
techniques for, 50
Pseudocode, 15
Pseudo-random number generator, 631
Pseudo-random numbers, 260
Public base class, 242
public reserved word, 90
Push algorithm
coding, 286
Pushes
effect of a Pop following series of, 208
Push function, 204, 212
and dynamic storage allocation, 280-289
Push operation, 198, 206, 207, 261
effects of, 197


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